The medical applications of marijuana are wide ranging and under researched. If you feel like we've left off an important condition or medical study, please email us and let us know. We can't list everything but we appreciate your input. Remember, the petition intends to allow licensed medical physicians decide whether a person should medicinally use marijuana for their condition by stating:
(b)(1), “Debilitating Medical Condition” means cancer, epilepsy, glaucoma, positive status for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Crohn's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, or other debilitating medical conditions of the same kind or class as or comparable to those enumerated, and for which a physician believes that the medical use of marijuana would likely outweigh the potential health risks for a patient."
- In a 1999 report the Institute of Medicine concluded, “The profile of cannabinoid drug effects suggests that they are promising for treating wasting syndrome in AIDS patients. Nausea, appetite loss, pain, and anxiety are all afflictions of wasting, and all can be mitigated by marijuana.”
- The American Academy of HIV Medicine, which describes itself as the “largest independent organization of HIV frontline providers”, believes, according to it's policy platform, "Marijuana has been found to have various health benefits. It reduces muscle spasms in people with neurologic disorders and can help treat some types of pain including that from peripheral neuropathy. Many scientific studies document marijuana's ability to reduce nausea and increase appetite."
- Additionally, according to a Baltimore Sun interview, a rep from the AAHIVM stated, “When appropriately prescribed and monitored, marijuana/cannabis can provide immeasurable benefits for the health and well-being of our patients."
Medical marijuana can also alleviate the neuropathic pain that can comes with HIV/AIDS. A study published in the February, 2007 issue of Neurology concluded that marijuana was “well tolerated and effectively relieved chronic neuropathic pain from HIV-associated sensory neuropathy.”
INCLUDING: ALS, PARKINSON’S, MS, ALZHEIMER’S, HUNTINGTON’S, GLAUCOMA & MORE
Over and over, scientists are stating, “Cannabis has powerful antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects.”
A study published November, 2015 by the Journal of Neurochemistry found that mice which were given low doses of THC before and after they received a dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were found to be protected by the THC from neuroinflammation. LPS is a known neuroinflammatory chemical. Their conclusion was that doses of low THC cannabinoids can protect the brain from neuroinflammation-induced cognitive damage, and might be used as an effective drug for the treatment of neuroinflammatory conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases.
- In a 2001 study published in the American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care, researchers state that, “Marijuana is a substance with many properties that may be applicable to the management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). These include analgesia, muscle relaxation, bronchodilation, saliva reduction, appetite stimulation, and sleep induction. In addition, marijuana has now been shown to have strong antioxidative and neuroprotective effects, which may prolong neuronal cell survival. In areas where it is legal to do so, marijuana should be considered in the pharmacological management of ALS.”
- Then, in a 2010 study published in the American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care researchers conclude, “Based on the currently available scientific data, it is reasonable to think that cannabis might significantly slow the progression of ALS, potentially extending life expectancy and substantially reducing the overall burden of the disease.”
- U.S. Government Patent 6,630,507, entitled “Cannabinoids as Antioxidants and Neuroprotectants,” is assigned to “the United States of America as represented by the Department of Health and Human Services.” The patent application states that, “Cannabinoids are found to have particular application as neuroprotectants, for example in limiting neurological damage following ischemic insults, such as stroke and trauma, or in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and HIV dementia."
- Published in the Clinical Neuropharmacology Journal in 2014, an observational study of 22 patients between 2011 and 2012 found that after patients with Parkinson’s disease smoked cannabis, “Analysis of specific motor symptoms revealed significant improvement after treatment in tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia. There was also significant improvement of sleep and pain scores. No significant adverse effects of the drug were observed." The study was done at Tel Aviv University.
- Published in a 2005 edition of Neurology, a peer-reviewed, double-blind, placebo controlled study concluded that, “Cannabis-based medicine is effective in reducing pain and sleep disturbance in patients with multiple sclerosis-related central neuropathic pain.”
- A 2012 randomized, placebo-controlled study conducted by researchers from the University of California San Diego found that MS patients considered to have “treatment-resistant spasticity” who smoked cannabis experienced statistically significant symptom and pain reduction.
- A 2014 review by the American Academy of Neurology of available scientific research on the use of medical marijuana in brain diseases found that, “Certain forms of medical marijuana can help treat some symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS).”
- A double-blind, placebo-controlled study published in The Journal of Pain in 2013 concluded that, “Vaporized cannabis, even at low doses, may present an effective option for patients with treatment-resistant neuropathic pain,” and that, “psychoactive effects were minimal and well tolerated, and neuropsychological effects were of limited duration and readily reversible within 1 to 2 hours."
- An inter-institutional study, publish in JAMA in 2014 compared the rate of overdoses in pain patients by way of opioids in states with and without medical marijuana laws. They found there is a “24.8% lower mean annual opioid overdose mortality rate compared to states without medical cannabis laws.”
A 2010 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial published in The British Journal of Pharmacology concluded that “compared to the placebo” cannabis-based medicine “was well tolerated and provided better protection against” chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
In addition to stating that CBD therapy helps chemotherapy, the National Cancer Institute has made statements which include that medical marijuana damages and kills cancer cells while protecting normal cells, slows tumor growth, has anti-inflammatory effects on the colon, relieves pain better, improves sleep quality and lowers anxiety. Some direct quotes from the National Cancer institute are below:
“A Laboratory study of delta-9-THC in hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer) cells showed that it damaged or killed the cancer cells. The same study of delta-9-THC in mouse models of liver cancer showed that it had antitumor effects”.
“A laboratory study of cannabidiol (CBD) in estrogen receptor positive and estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells showed that it caused cancer cell death while having little effect on normal breast cells.”
“A small case series found that patients who inhaled marijuana had improved mood, improved sense of well-being, and less anxiety.”
“Two small clinical trials of oral delta-9-THC showed that it relieved cancer pain.”
“A study of over 5,000 men and women without cancer over a period of 20 years found that smoking tobacco was linked with some loss of lung function but that occasional and low use of cannabis was not linked with loss of lung function.”
“A review of bladder cancer rates in both cannabis users and non-users was done in over 84,000 men who took part in the California Men's Health Study. Over 16 years of follow-up and adjusting for age, race/ethnic group and body mass index (BMI), rates of bladder cancer were found to be 45% lower in cannabis users than in men who did not report cannabis use.”
- At the Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Meir Medical Center, an observational study was conducted among 30 Crohn's patients. In addition to 21 of the 30 patients improving significantly, researchers stated, "The observed beneficial effect in this study may be due to the anti-inflammatory properties of cannabis, but additional effects of cannabinoids may also play a role. Cannabinoids influence gastrointestinal motility and, in particular, have an anti-diarrheal effect."
In a 2012 article published in the Journal Digestion, researchers found that: “Treatment with inhaled cannabis improves quality of life in patients with long-standing CD [Crohn's disease] and UC [ulcerative colitis]. Treatment was also shown to cause a statistically significant rise in patients’ weight after 3 months of treatment, and improvement in clinical disease activity index in patients with CD.”
In a placebo controlled study of 21 patients who were all unresponsive to standard IBD treatment, researchers found, “an 8-week treatment with tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-rich cannabis caused a decrease in the Crohn's disease activity index in 90% of patients without producing significant side effects.” The study was published in Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology in 2013.
- The 2009 position statement of the American Glaucoma Society states, “It has been definitively demonstrated, and widely appreciated, that smoking marijuana lowers IOP (intraocular pressure) in both normal individuals and in those with glaucoma, and therefore might be a treatment for glaucoma.”
- A 2004 article from the British Journal of Opthemalogy, which intended to give an overview of all the research achievements made in cannabis therapy to date, stated, "Cannabinoids effectively lower the intraocular pressure (IOP) and have neuroprotective actions. Thus, they could potentially be useful in the treatment of glaucoma."
A 2012 animal study published by the British Epilepsy Association concluded, “This evidence strongly supports CBD as a therapeutic candidate for a diverse range of human epilepsies.”
The Epilepsy Foundation supports medical marijuana. In their statement on the issue, the group wrote: “The Epilepsy Foundation supports the rights of patients and families living with seizures and epilepsy to access physician directed care, including medical marijuana. Nothing should stand in the way of patients gaining access to potentially life-saving treatment. If a patient and their healthcare professionals feel that the potential benefits of medical marijuana for uncontrolled epilepsy outweigh the risks, then families need to have that legal option now -- not in five years or ten years."
In 2013, The British Pharmacological Society published a study concluding, “CBDV BDSs exerted significant anticonvulsant effects in three models of seizure that were not mediated by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor and were of comparable efficacy with purified CBDV. These findings strongly support the further clinical development of CBDV BDSs for the treatment of epilepsy.”
- Published March of 2013, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs published results stating, "Greater than 75% reduction in CAPS symptom scores were reported when patients were using cannabis compared to when they were not." It is important to note, "There are no published studies, other than case reports, of the effects of cannabis on PTSD symptoms. The purpose of the study was to report and statistically analyze psychometric data on PTSD symptoms collected during 80 psychiatric evaluations of patients applying to the New Mexico Medical Cannabis Program from 2009 to 2011."
- In the spring of 2009, CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics published a study stating, “The majority of patients (72%) receiving nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, experienced either cessation of nightmares or a significant reduction in nightmare intensity. Subjective improvement in sleep time, the quality of sleep, and the reduction of daytime flashbacks and nightsweats were also noted by some patients. The results of this study indicate the potential benefits of nabilone, in patients with PTSD experiencing poor control of nightmares with standard pharmacotherapy.
- A study conducted at the University of Haifa and published in Neuropsychopharmacologyin 2014, concluded that a synthetic cannabinoid given to rats after a traumatic event prevented behavioral and physiological symptoms of PTSD.